This is a link to an article about Black ASL: https://www.washingtonpost.com/life...897628-bbe2-11e1-8867-ecf6cb7935ef_story.html as far as the question you have Alissa - this is what I thought, for me, when I read your question - groups that have a long history of oppression...trust or lack thereof, about those not part of that group - that oppression and history is significant. Being able to be safe in the space of people who share a common experience of prejudice, ignorance directed at group members, shared background like a Deaf school in the case of Deaf....that's all important, part of maintaining ties to each other, maintaining language and values in a world that does not understand or value the same. The disenfranchised group can be its own family. For me, a someone who moves between different "outsider" groups for different reasons - being with someone where you don't have to explain anything<again>, where you use your own language, where some things automatically pass between you and other members because people automatically "get it" - all that can be empowering and comforting. You can understand "the history and the hearing ignorance..." <as in the example here>from a literal and historical perspective but to really know the kinds of things I've described, you have to have shared experiences.