AllDeaf.com
Perks - Advertise - Spy - Who Quoted Me  
Go Back   AllDeaf.com > Miscellaneous > Sports Talk
LIKE AllDeaf on Facebook FOLLOW AllDeaf on Twitter
Reply
Thread Tools Display Modes
Unread 11-24-2005, 01:29 AM   #1
Heath
Banned
 
Join Date: May 2005
Posts: 8,088
Likes: 0
Liked 0 Times in 0 Posts
Free Pictures Of Self Defense Charts....

Hi AD readers, I thought I would put up a couple of the free pictures of self defense charts. Please use the charts only for self defense purposes in a serious and responsible manner. I hope these charts save Deaf people's lives someday. There is a mixture of American and Russian self defense charts as well as some good reading materials.

Here are the charts.....For Self Defense Only and to be used appropriately.

http://www.gutterfighting.org/EOHjorgensen.html

http://www.gutterfighting.org/EOHcosneck.html

http://ejmas.com/jnc/jncart_aircrew_1100.htm

http://www.new-pony.com/systema/RMA.jpg

I should be adding some video clips of the physical demonstrations of self defense in the next few days. No closed captioning UNLESS you know how to turn the CC on Windows Media Video ( WMV ) Please explain how??? Thank you ....

The video clips has alots of visual and easy, clear to understand physical demonstrations of self defensive measures.

As Always try to avoid fighting in the first place and avoid bad places and situations if you can.

Please have a Happy Thanksgiving and God Bless and stay safe, Heath
Heath is offline   Reply With Quote
Alt Today
All Deaf

Beitrag Sponsored Links

__________________
This advertising will not be shown in this way to registered members.
Register your free account today and become a member on AllDeaf.com
   
Unread 11-24-2005, 01:38 AM   #2
Heath
Banned
 
Join Date: May 2005
Posts: 8,088
Likes: 0
Liked 0 Times in 0 Posts
Here is one more very visual and easy to learn chart, just point your mouse over the chart....

http://www.karate.butsu.net/hpage23.html
Heath is offline   Reply With Quote
Unread 11-27-2005, 03:57 PM   #3
Heath
Banned
 
Join Date: May 2005
Posts: 8,088
Likes: 0
Liked 0 Times in 0 Posts
Hi AD Readers, I hope you had a Happy Thanksgiving and God Bless...

Here are some excellent self defense video clips I have found on the internet that may save Deaf people's lives someday. I pray you are never in a situation like this and that now you have the resources to deal with a self defense situation. Please keep in mind they are not closed captioned. I did make sure it was very highly visual and easy to understand without captions. I searched long and hard for ones that make alots of sense and would help you in a self defense situation.

The first video clip is basically a silent and very relaxing one then will get into more video clips as it progresses....Enjoy this one relaxing video clip ....

http://video.google.com/videoplay?do...q=self+defense

In this 2nd video clip ... this video is very nice for its showing a very visual understanding of what is happening. The only thing is that in a real life situation. There will be no fancy high kicking and it would be more like mid-level or low kicking because you want self defense to work to your advantage in a very serious self defense situation.

http://video.google.com/videoplay?do...&q=tae+kwon+do

This 3rd video clip is of the US Army Combatives course. Please do not try these moves.... Please seek professional instruction from a certified martial arts instructor ( teacher ) This will give you an idea of how the US Army trains for war. No one wants war and peace is always the best. God Bless the US Troops...

http://video.google.com/videoplay?do...to+hand+combat

This 4th clip will show you something from a self defense school.... you will learn alots from this one and how much training and effort they put into becoming stronger and healthier, if you have the money by all means go for it and if you do not have money ... you can always read books and check for DVD's on the internet usually about $20. I have yet to see one that is closed captioned though. This video clip is basically an overview of what training is like.... it should be fun and enjoyable. This is a good example of a good school. Clean , professional and respect at all times. Safety is taken very seriously.

http://video.google.com/videoplay?do...31013&q=combat

This one is worth putting here because there are some very good self defense movements shown and in the opening of the video clip ... there is that high kick which most people in real life would not use in a real life and death fight ... if someone tries to kick high towards you. The best thing you can do is to take a couple steps back then grab his feet and trip him on his another leg , always being careful to watch what his hands are doing....5th video clip

http://video.google.com/videoplay?do...rts&pr=goog-sl

This video clip is really good once you get past the first few seconds of the video clip because it shows the level of highly physically fit people... Enjoy the 6th video clip....God Bless...


http://video.google.com/videoplay?do...ate&pr=goog-sl

This 7th video clip will give you an idea of how the US Marines train for their green belt in the Marine Corps Martial arts program ..... (MCMAP )

http://video.google.com/videoplay?do...MAP&pr=goog-sl

Here is one last one ....about how the US Marines passes or fails their students on the MCMAP tests to be ready for war. It is a 48 page computer print out to mark what ones you passed or need more work on. It is available to the general public. You will need Abode pdf format if you do not have one then the next link will show you where to download for free the Abode pdf format.

http://www.iiimef.usmc.mil/g1/TRAINING/ORDERS%20AND%20PUBLICATIONS/MCO%201500.%2054A%20MCMAP%2016%20Dec%2002.pdf#sear ch='usmc%20mcmap'

Free Abode pdf format download at:

http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep2.html


As Always stay safe and please avoid bad people , dangerous places and bad situations and I want to see Deaf people safe, strong and have good knowledge and understanding to be safe. God Bless....Heath
Heath is offline   Reply With Quote
Unread 11-27-2005, 09:57 PM   #4
Heath
Banned
 
Join Date: May 2005
Posts: 8,088
Likes: 0
Liked 0 Times in 0 Posts
I will post some more videos charts and instructional pictures in the near future on the subject of self defense. Thank you and stay safe as always. God Bless... Heath
Heath is offline   Reply With Quote
Unread 11-27-2005, 10:08 PM   #5
mlkshkgrl
Registered User
 
mlkshkgrl's Avatar
 
Join Date: Mar 2005
Location: Whoville
Posts: 1,042
Likes: 0
Liked 0 Times in 0 Posts
Wow, those are all very helpful. Thank you for taking the time out to post those. Have a happy holiday season.
__________________
mlkshkgrl is offline   Reply With Quote
Unread 11-27-2005, 10:12 PM   #6
Heath
Banned
 
Join Date: May 2005
Posts: 8,088
Likes: 0
Liked 0 Times in 0 Posts
I noticed one of the links was not able to work or be clickable ... let me see if I get this one working properly. Hope this one works... Scroll to page 25 and it is in Abode pdf format.



https://www.tbs.usmc.mil/Pages/MA/pu...201500.54B.pdf
Heath is offline   Reply With Quote
Unread 11-27-2005, 10:30 PM   #7
Heath
Banned
 
Join Date: May 2005
Posts: 8,088
Likes: 0
Liked 0 Times in 0 Posts
Mlkshkgirl you are welcome and Merry Christmas....
Heath is offline   Reply With Quote
Unread 11-27-2005, 10:49 PM   #8
Heath
Banned
 
Join Date: May 2005
Posts: 8,088
Likes: 0
Liked 0 Times in 0 Posts
https://www.tbs.usmc.mil/Pages/MA/im...p_triangle.gif
Heath is offline   Reply With Quote
Unread 11-28-2005, 07:12 AM   #9
Heath
Banned
 
Join Date: May 2005
Posts: 8,088
Likes: 0
Liked 0 Times in 0 Posts
If you are able to afford classes in martial arts then you will get a certificate after training and it will look something like this ....also please make sure to study in military hand to hand combat and learn law enforcement techniques, Why law enforcement techniques you may ask ? Many of the law enforcement techniques are excellent for the civilians and military hand to hand combat for the civilian is usually reserved to a true and serious life and death situation. A good example of law enforcement use of technique would be....


( for example you have a drunk family member or your cousin coming home from the bar all upset over something and you can not use lethal force.)

You will need to know how to restrain him to the ground and not kill him with your body weight on his chest ( lungs are there ) or your arm on his neck and the arm pressure cutting off his breathing. There is a right and wrong way to every technique, of course in a real life situation ... the techniques may not be always perfect, the idea is to move with a swift technique as close to a real life situation.

This is an example:

Here is what the training certificate will look like....Notice what it says on the certificate at the top of the certificate....

http://www.asianbrushart.com/images/...20layout-9.jpg
Heath is offline   Reply With Quote
Unread 11-28-2005, 07:14 AM   #10
Heath
Banned
 
Join Date: May 2005
Posts: 8,088
Likes: 0
Liked 0 Times in 0 Posts
Here is another training certificate that you will have graduated from for example...

http://www.asianbrushart.com/images/...20layout-2.jpg
Heath is offline   Reply With Quote
Unread 11-28-2005, 07:23 AM   #11
Heath
Banned
 
Join Date: May 2005
Posts: 8,088
Likes: 0
Liked 0 Times in 0 Posts
Here are some of the training devices you will see in a martial arts class. The weapons look real but they are not and they are made entirely of rubber which is alots safer. Plastic may seem good but I would say go with a rubber training knife then have a plastic gun for training this way you have a lower chance of getting hurt if you can not afford the classes and train on your own. Never train with the real thing if you own a handgun or a knife please for your safety !!!!! Even Martial Arts Instructors do not train their students with the real weapons. Please use common-sense and train responsibly and safely.....


http://www.mastercutlery.com/martialart/map32_lr.jpg
Heath is offline   Reply With Quote
Unread 11-28-2005, 07:53 AM   #12
Heath
Banned
 
Join Date: May 2005
Posts: 8,088
Likes: 0
Liked 0 Times in 0 Posts
Here are some examples of martial arts patches that you will have on your uniform...

http://masterkwon.com/images/patch.jpg

http://www.jadedragon.com/archives/martarts/aikidp.gif

http://www.suigetsu.com/suigArt/patch.gif

http://www.modernarnis.cc/header-patch.jpg

http://www.hapkiyoosool.com/images/UseBestPatch2.jpg

http://www.angelfire.com/sc/kajukenb...patchColSM.JPG

http://judo1.net/jns/img/kenpo/patch1a.gif

http://www.aikidoschool.com/patch_sm.gif

http://www.chintokan.com/images/sbkk_patch.gif

http://www.mastercutlery.com/martialart/map35_lr.jpg

http://www.imperialweapons.com/orien...ties/patc3.jpg

http://lmaa.bravepages.com/photoalbum/JKKlogosm.jpg

http://www.kennesawckd.com/Asst/CKD_Logo.jpg

http://www.johnpress.com/zarts/tkpic...go_malinks.jpg

http://www.trianglekungfu.com/logo1.jpg

http://www.warriorma.com/logos/WMA_L...Korean-500.jpg

As you can see there are many good schools out there and please do not limit yourself to one school ...you can learn alittle bit of everything because when using ASL everyday you will see many different applications of martial arts through American Sign Language....that is the cool part about it. I would love to go to all the schools and learn everything and get tons of certifactes I do not have the money to do it so I enjoy martial arts as a hobby
Heath is offline   Reply With Quote
Unread 11-28-2005, 07:57 AM   #13
Heath
Banned
 
Join Date: May 2005
Posts: 8,088
Likes: 0
Liked 0 Times in 0 Posts
Some more examples of martial arts patches

http://www.planetsurvival.com/nss-fo...20rad%20TM.gif

http://www.scornavacco.com/images/un...martial_ar.jpg

http://www.contactcombat.com/images/top-lt.jpg

http://www.timminsweb.ca/f2surv/HaganahLarger.jpg

http://www.haganahdfw.com/images/haganahpunch.jpg

Last edited by Heath; 11-28-2005 at 08:12 AM.
Heath is offline   Reply With Quote
Unread 11-28-2005, 08:13 AM   #14
Heath
Banned
 
Join Date: May 2005
Posts: 8,088
Likes: 0
Liked 0 Times in 0 Posts
Now back to self defense charts etc... Will be posting something more later in the day....
Heath is offline   Reply With Quote
Unread 11-30-2005, 09:41 AM   #15
Heath
Banned
 
Join Date: May 2005
Posts: 8,088
Likes: 0
Liked 0 Times in 0 Posts
http://tkdtutor.com/11Training/Exercises/Exercises.htm
Heath is offline   Reply With Quote
Unread 11-30-2005, 09:43 AM   #16
Heath
Banned
 
Join Date: May 2005
Posts: 8,088
Likes: 0
Liked 0 Times in 0 Posts
Training Warnings

Always consult a physician before engaging in a program of rigorous exercise.

Consult a physician immediately if any persistent pain or swelling occurs during or after periods of training.

Always train under the guidance of an experienced instructor to insure effective and safe training procedures and techniques. Children especially should be closely supervised while training.

Always warm-up adequately before each workout and begin each training session slowly, gradually increasing the speed and power of your techniques.

Be careful not to over train. Over training may result in an injury due to fatigue or lax concentration.

If an injury should occur, allow adequate time for it to heal before resuming training.
Heath is offline   Reply With Quote
Unread 11-30-2005, 09:48 AM   #17
Heath
Banned
 
Join Date: May 2005
Posts: 8,088
Likes: 0
Liked 0 Times in 0 Posts
This article will help clear up many misunderstandings and concepts about getting help. I used to think people would help me because I am Deaf .... now I am older and an adult. I found out that is not always the case. Here is the article. Prayer never hurts either.

Rely on Yourself

When you are in trouble or in danger, the only person you can count on to help you is yourself. There may be others around to help you, either because they care about you, they have a legal duty to help you, or there is a moral duty to help you. However, they may be unable to help, be too late to help, or choose not to help you. The only person who is always available to help is—you.

If available and able, family or friends may help you. If available and able, public or private safety personnel have a legal duty to help you. We all have a moral duty to help others if we are able. All this being true, you cannot count on their help. Many people are either too scared to help you or for legal, safety, or personal reasons, they do not want to get involved.

Many people are even afraid to report to authorities that you are in danger. People know that if they get involved, their act of goodwill may result in having to testify for you, lawsuits from you or you attacker, lawyer fees, threats to themselves or family, or even placement in a witness protection program. Most people react instinctively to help others, but others hesitate, and then choose not to help.

So do not rely on others to help you. Only rely on yourself. If help comes, fine. If it does not come, you will take care of things yourself. To be able to help yourself, you must be prepared. When something bad happens or you are attacked, it is too late to prepare. Preparation not only prepares you for action, it gives you the confidence that you can take action to help yourself when the need arises.

Ask for help when needed, take help when offered, but only rely on yourself.
Heath is offline   Reply With Quote
Unread 11-30-2005, 09:54 AM   #18
Heath
Banned
 
Join Date: May 2005
Posts: 8,088
Likes: 0
Liked 0 Times in 0 Posts
Good Life saving advice... especially in the post-9/11 environment for Deaf people. I hope this article saves Deaf people's lives God Bless... read on...

Licking Your Wounds

If you watch animals fight, they fight to their utmost because they know that a loss means—death. No matter their injuries, no matter their pain, they do not surrender. After the fight, the winner will probably be seriously injured. As the effects of the adrenaline rush fade away, the pain of the injuries will intensify, but the winner cannot relax. He or she must retreat to safety, lick the wounds, and get back to business of survival. After you have fought a tough street self-defense battle, you also must retreat to safely and lick your wounds so you may get back to the business of life.

First aid training is not just for the times you must treat others, sometimes it is for treating yourself. All fire fighting personnel, police officers, and military personnel get first aid training, not just to treat others, but so they may treat themselves when needed so they may get back into the battle and do their job. All of you should be qualified in first aid.

By first aid, I do not just mean just basic first aid, such as CPR, stopping bleeding, splinting breaks, treating minor cuts, etc., I also mean battle field first aid, the type of would you would need in combat. Nowadays, a self-defense situation may not only involve the fists, pipes, chains, and knives of the past, but the firearms and even tragically enough acts of terrorisms involving the use of explosives. Nowadays, first aid may have to include gunshot wounds, sucking chest wounds, exposed guts, missing limbs, etc. You may not only have to deal with these types of wounds on others, but also on yourself. If you are to survive a self-defense attack, even one you win, you not only must ignore your injuries during the battle, you also must be able to lick your wounds afterward and get on with your life.

In a empty-hand street battle, even if you are the winner, you will get hit hard and often before the battle is over. If a knife is involved, you will get cut. If a gun is involved, someone will probably get shot. During the combat, you will probably not realize you are injured, but after the battle, after the effects of the adrenaline rush fade away, the pain will come.

Most martial arts schools train for "Pil Sung" (certain victory), but they do not train for the aftereffects of victory. In a tournament, the aftereffects of victory are rejoicing and receiving praise. In a street battle, victory means getting to safety to check yourself for wounds, treating the wounds quickly, and then either getting away safely or preparing to take on the next attacker. During sparring, if you are hurt, you raise your hand, the fighting stops, and you are protected and treated by others. In a street battle, if you are hurt and show it, the attacker will pounce on the hurt area with a vengeance. Also, there is no one else to protect you and treat your injury. You must fight the through pain no matter the severity of the injury, if not you may never be in pain again.

After a street battle that involves knives or shots being fired, even if you are the winner, immediately check yourself for wounds. A clean, though deep, cut may not have much pain, but you may bleed to death quickly. A .22 caliber bullet hole is small and may not even be noticed or felt for a few minutes, but if it pierces a vital organ, you may go into shock and die quickly. Rub and press your hands over every part of your body from head to toe. Blood on a hand or a sharp pain from a press may indicate a serious injury. If shot, also check for an exit wound.

Prepare yourself for what you must do after losing a street battle, but also prepare yourself for the possible results of a victory. First aid courses are available from your local Red Cross or community college. Many businesses make courses available to their employees. If unable to take a course, many web sites have first aid information.
Heath is offline   Reply With Quote
Unread 11-30-2005, 10:07 AM   #19
Heath
Banned
 
Join Date: May 2005
Posts: 8,088
Likes: 0
Liked 0 Times in 0 Posts
About Hand Attacks

Hand techniques uses the muscles of the arms and torso to transfer the power generated by the legs and hips to the target. The thrusting motion of arm techniques and is essentially the same as the thrusting motion of leg techniques. Students must concentrate on the following points in hand techniques: the path of the hand, speed, and concentration of power through the proper use of the summation of forces.

Four major categories of hand attacks

Punches

Hand attacks using a closed fist in mostly linear attack. Some punch arc (such as hook punch) or travel upward (such as uppercut). Fist may be held horizontally or vertically. Contact area is usually first two knuckles. Power comes from hip snap and driving off ball of trailing foot, also use the knee-snap sine wave to generate power. Punches may be "snapped" out and back very quickly or "pushed through" where upon contact, the fist pushes into the target.

Strikes

Hand attacks using some variation of a closed (such as back fist), semi-open (such as bear paw), or open (such as knife hand) hand in a circular attack. Impact area depends on the type of technique. Power comes from twisting of torso and footwork that permits body spinning. The arcing of the strike and the rotational speed of the body greatly increase power. Arc may travel along a vertical or horizontal axis. Strikes may be "snapped" or "pushed through" or a combination of the two.

Thrusts

Hand attacks when some part of the hand (such as two-fingers, palm, or middle knuckles) is jabbed into the opponent in a linear motion, usually to specific targets (such as eyes or solar plexus). Power comes from hip snap and driving off ball of trailing foot. There are three types of delivery:

A snapping whip-crack motion.

Pushing off an incoming attack with a thrusting motion.

Combining the whip-crack and push-through. This is used when breaking boards to leave the first board intact while breaking the others.

Elbows

Although not a part of the hand, elbow attacks are categorized as hand techniques. Most elbow attacks are circular. Arc of attack may be vertical or horizontal. Impact areas are front, back, tip, and sides of elbow. Power comes from hip snap and driving off ball of trailing foot.
Heath is offline   Reply With Quote
Unread 11-30-2005, 10:15 AM   #20
Heath
Banned
 
Join Date: May 2005
Posts: 8,088
Likes: 0
Liked 0 Times in 0 Posts
Hand Strength

To use the hand as a weapon requires it top be strong in all actions. Not only must the action of gripping be strong the motion of opening the fingers from the grip must also be strong, as in releasing the hand from a grip.

Most people strength train their arms, legs, and abdomen but neglect their hands. Mas Oyama, one of the most powerful martial arts of this time (he fought and killed bulls barehanded), describes hand and finger exercises in his book Essential Karate. One exercise consists of placing the palms and fingers of both hands together in a prayer-like position with the fingers pointed upward in front of the chest. The hands and fingers are then pushed together in an isometric manner. While maintaining the pressure, the hand are raised above the head and then lowered to the level of the solar plexus. The same up and down motion is used with the finger are pointed away from the body and then with the fingers pointed downward. These motion strengthen the wrists, arms, and chest, while also building flexibility in the wrists.

To strengthen the fingers and wrist, perform pushups on palms with fingers pointed inward, forward, outward, and backward; on fists with knuckles facing inward, forward, outward, and backward; on five, four, three, and two fingers and finally on the thumbs. Another traditional exercise is to stand in a sitting stance with the arms extending to the front and repeatedly close, squeeze, and extend the fingers rapidly for a few minutes.

Dan Hodge, Olympic champion and Oklahoma wrestling coach, noted for his incredible grip, strengthen his powerful grip by repeatedly crumbling a sheets of newspaper into a ball with one hand. At his peak, he could crush a whole apple in one hand. As another exercise, try to fold a sheet of newspaper (or any size paper) in half more than seven times.

Proper Path

The correct path is determined by the position and angle of the target surface in relation to the attacker. To be effective, the hand attack must strike the target surface at a 90 degree angle, going straight into the target, so that maximum force can be concentrated into the target.

Speed

To increase the speed of a punch:

Contract the muscles‑being used more quickly

Relax the muscles not being used

Don't put power into the arm until the moment of contact

Retract the non‑punching hand as quickly as possible

Power Concentration

Power can be concentrated properly only when the hips, chest, shoulders, arms, wrists, and fists are firmly linked, and all the necessary muscles are used properly. By proper use of the summation of forces the power flows smoothly from the legs and hips out through the fist at the point of contact. For this to happen it is necessary to release all unnecessary tension from the arm and the hand at the start. This allows the power to flow freely up through the body to be released in a concentrated blast at the moment of impact.

Clinched Fists

When tensing the body to resist the reaction force in a punch, body muscles are tensed to lock the body in position so that the target absorbs the impact rather than the person punching. We all know the fist should be clinched at impact, but when you it initially be clinched? Beginners should probably clench the fist all the time. Intermediate students should begin to try to clench the fist only at impact. High ranking students should have the timing and distancing necessary to easily choose the proper moment to clench the fist, so that safety is not a concern and they may benefit from the total relaxation provided by a loose hand. During sparring drills, many high ranks like to keep their fists loose even on impact, so they may strike actually touching the opponent without injuring them. After long years of training, the expert may easily choose when to clench the fist or to keep it relaxed.

Fist Rotation

Fist rotation while punching and blocking is one of the very first things taught to a beginner. Rotation of the fist causes the forearm to twist, which changes in the orientation of the muscles of the forearm such that some of these muscles naturally tense. The tensing of the muscles help make the technique stronger. Training with a rotating fist helps coordinate the tension to occur only at the final instant of the technique (timing). The twist of the fist encourages a greater movement (power). When in a self-defense situation, twisting during impact may cause tearing injuries to the attacker. Mohamed Ali's twisting punches ripped many opponents' faces. See Punching topic for more information.



Contact Area

The contact area for a punch is the base knuckles of the first tow fingers. This concentrates all the force of the punch into a very small area and keeps the impact point in alignment with the forearm to lessen the chance for wrist injury. When punching a a high target, some students, especially beginners, have a difficult time keeping the first two knuckles in proper alignment.

This is a common problem when using the twist punch at targets above the solar plexus and particularly the head. To help correct the problem, roll the punching shoulder upward and inward. This realigns the first two knuckles. Another way to avoid the problem is to use a different technique to attack the head, such as:

Use a palm heel strike or knife hand strike.

Use a straight vertical punch, where the fist is not twisted but is held vertically with the thumb side up.

Use a modified punch where the forearm is held vertically in the guard position and the elbow is rotated upward before the punch begins. This lets the punch travel over the opponent’s guard and then slightly downward into the target. Since the punch is angled downward the first two knuckles strike first.

General Tips

Keep the upper body perpendicular to the ground. Do not lean.

Form the attacking hand correctly and firmly.

Be sure the hand travels to the target along the most direct route.

When withdrawing the hand to the side, pull it back as if to hit the hip. Withdraw the hand at maximum speed.

Keep the shoulders relaxed and in a natural position. There is a tendency for the shoulders to rise or for one shoulder to move ahead of the other.

Tense the abdominal muscles at impact.

Breathing should be coordinated with the attacking motion to develop effective focus.

The stance from which the technique is delivered must be strong and stable.

Power comes from the use of the hips and the pivot leg, not just the arms and shoulders.

To extend the range of a hand attack, either move the entire stance toward the target, or widen the distance between the feet and lower the hips. Don't lean forward with the upper body, or reach with the shoulder.

Only strike the head with open hand strikes. Save punches for the soft parts of the torso and neck. The exception to this rule is when you use a hammer fist. You can close your fist and still hit to the hard parts with the bottom of your fist without damaging your hands.

Inverted Technique

An inverted technique is one that is turned upside down. For example, an inward striking knife hand strike has the palm up. If the hand is turned over palm down, it may become an outward striking inverted knife hand strike.

Spinning Technique

A spinning technique is one that is applied after spinning the body 360° toward the side executing the technique.

To Punch or Not to Punch

When knuckles meet skull during a confrontation, the skull will always win. So, maybe the fist is not the best hand striking tool. The palm heel strike may be the better choice.

To execute a palm heel strike, the hand is pulled back as far as possible, locking the wrist, and the fingers curl slightly forward. The palm and finger tips should face the target. Contact is made with the very bottom of the palm just in front of the wrist. The palm heel strike is quite effective. If used on a slightly upward angle, it has a tremendous amount of leverage.

A punch to the head will usually only affect the area where the knuckles make contact. Palm heel strikes have a secondary effect. A palm strike to the head probably will not cause much damage to the contact point, but it will have an effect on the neck and usually will jolt the body. A palm heel strike the underside of the will often produce a knock-out due to the whip lash effect. A palm heel strike anywhere to the head area will almost always affect balance, because the it will take the assailant's ears out of line with the hips, which will expose other parts of the body to combinations or a takedown. The palm heel strike may be used effectively to the hard parts of the body. Punches are best used against the softer muscular parts of the body to avoid injury to the puncher. Palm heel strikes do not appear as violent as clenching your fist and striking someone. To a witness, an open hand strike may appear as a push.

The most common injury in punching occurs when the fist strikes with the last two knuckles. The 5th metacarpal (between the knuckles of the middle finger and pinkie) usually breaks, commonly referred to as a boxer's fracture, which is why boxers always tape their fists prior to training or fighting. A fracture will take 6-8 weeks to heal, while a sprain (tear in ligament) could take up to 6 months to heal, and then rehabilitation could take another 3-4 months.

Grip strength comes from the ulnar side (pinky side) of the hand. A boxer's fracture would significantly affect your grip. Try to hold anything with a handle without using your fourth finger. This means you will not be able to defend yourself by grabbing or gripping a weapon.
Heath is offline   Reply With Quote
Unread 11-30-2005, 10:18 AM   #21
Heath
Banned
 
Join Date: May 2005
Posts: 8,088
Likes: 0
Liked 0 Times in 0 Posts
Another consideration is cutting the knuckles on the perpetrator's teeth. Punches are usually directed to the head area, but the mouth should be avoided. However, the teeth may be struck inadvertently. Humans have the very infectious mouths, including AIDS. Once you break skin you are introducing all those germs to your body. When you open your hand from a fist, the tendons pull back. If the knuckles are cut when a fist strikes teeth, the act of opening the hand pulls bacteria in. Serious infection can set in within 24-48 hours. When a mouth strike is made with the heel of the palm. any impact with the mouth distributes the contact area making it difficult to break skin if the teeth are struck. With a punch, one knuckle may hit the teeth, breaking skin easily, because the skin on the Dorsal side (top of the hand) is easily cut because it is very thin. The opposite is true of the skin on the palm. Germs do not fester as easily in the fleshy palm of the hand as they do in the knuckles. With a properly executed palm heel strike, the chances of injuring the hand are slim.
Heath is offline   Reply With Quote
Unread 11-30-2005, 10:48 AM   #22
Heath
Banned
 
Join Date: May 2005
Posts: 8,088
Likes: 0
Liked 0 Times in 0 Posts
Throw Defenses

It is very difficult to throw an opponent. You must commit yourself to the throw and sometimes turn your back to the opponent or even fall yourself, which means you are in a vulnerable position. To successfully complete a throw, many factors must be present or must be completed by you, which makes throwing difficult. Another difficulty in completing a throw is that it is relatively easy to block a throw.

For any attempted throw to be successful, the opponent must be off balance, you must maintain your stability, and you must get your center of mass below the opponent's center of mass. Other factors need to be present, such as a firm, advantageous grip and quick movement, but they are less important in actually getting the opponent to the ground. To block a throw, you must either keep or regain your stability, upset the attacker's stability, or keep your center of mass level with or under the center of mass of the attacker.

When an opponent attempts a throw where his or her back must be turned to you, a simple defense is to use a free hand to push against the bottom center of the opponent's back to push the hips forward. This upsets the opponent's stability and makes it almost impossible for him or her to lift you. If you bend you knees to lower your center of mass, you may defeat many attempts to throw you. Leaning backward will also shift your center of mass back to your advantage, but if the opponent switches throws and goes for a backward throw, you will be vulnerable. You may also step around the pivot point of the throw so the opponent slips by you.

For a foot sweep to be successful, you must be caught in the process of shifting your weight onto the foot to be swept. A foot sweep attempt may be defeated by lifting your foot out of the way or by shifting more weight onto the foot.

As an opponent moves in to attempt a throw, you may push or stop the attacking shoulder or arm to prevent the opponent from getting close enough for the throw.
Heath is offline   Reply With Quote
Unread 11-30-2005, 10:57 AM   #23
Heath
Banned
 
Join Date: May 2005
Posts: 8,088
Likes: 0
Liked 0 Times in 0 Posts
Training Tips

Stair Climbing

Five 2-minute sessions of stair climbing can give you a heart-pumping workout equivalent to 36 minutes of walking, according to a new study. When researchers tested 15 healthy but inactive young women (average age 18) for 8 weeks, those who worked up to climbing 199 steps in about 2 minutes, five times a day, posted a whopping 17% increase in cardio fitness levels compared with women who did nothing. The climbers also lowered their bad LDL cholesterol by 8%, an improvement that can cut heart disease risk by up to one-quarter. In a follow-up study, 29 older men and women (average age 40) did even less stair climbing (145 steps in 2-minute bouts, three times a day) and boosted their cardio fitness by 8%.

Weight Training

A 2001 study by the University of Maryland found that resting metabolic rate increased by about 7% after six months of intense weight training. Other studies have indicated the increase may be as much as 15%. Every pound of lean muscle burns an additional 30 to 50 calories a day. Intense weight training may add 3 to 6 pounds of muscle in six months. Men build muscle more easily than women. Since muscle is more dense than fat, pound for pound it takes up less space. A pound of muscle is 30% smaller than a pound of fat. Weight training is especially important for older people since they lose muscle mass as they age. Proper weight training should be for 45 minutes for three non-consecutive days with 20 minutes of aerobics training on alternate days.

Another new tend in weight lifting is the SuperSlow workout. This workout uses a few select exercises with low repetitions with a super slow motion of movement (10 seconds on the concentric [raising] movement and 10 seconds on the eccentric [lowering] movement). Workouts are only 15-30 minutes in length and are only done once or twice a week. Studies differ on whether this method of lifting is better or worse than conventional lifting, but some people get great results and only have to workout once every 7 to 10 days. See www.superslow.com for more information.

Overcome a Strength Plateau

If you are exercising regularly, at some point you will reach a plateau, a point at which your body stops making gains. Most exercisers make the mistake of adding more sets or more weight to their routines, both of which may lead to injury.Break-down trainings is a better choice.

In break-down training, you push your muscles to a higher level of exhaustion by doing one set of reps with your usual weight, reduce the weight, and add 2-3 more reps. This provides deeper stimulus to muscle fibers so you may train more intensely and use a greater percentage of muscle strength.

In a study by the American College of Medicine, 60 adults aged 25 to 84 trained for four weeks, lifting a weight with which they could do one set of 8-12 reps per exercise. Half the group continued this routine for another four weeks. The other half, after doing the initial set, would lower the weight by 10% and complete 2-4 more reps. The adults who added these reps gained 39 percent more strength; the seniors gained 100 percent.

Isolation or Compound Weight Training

Isolation exercises isolate a specific muscle or muscle group to shape and define the body, to create the look of muscle separation and to achieve an overall symmetry of the physique, such as the preacher curl for the biceps. Lifting machines help isolate specific muscles. Examples of isolation exercises are: leg extensions, hamstring curls, dumbbell flies, cable crossovers, decline bench presses, side lateral raises, front raises, abductor/adductor exercises, shrugs, pushdowns, kickbacks, preacher curls, wrist curls, and seated calf raises.

Compound exercises employ a number of muscles and muscle groups. They require the work of several muscle at once and stimulate the most responsive muscle growth. The best results are achieved using free weights or dumbbells, since they encourage effort from may different supporting muscles. Examples of compound exercises are: dead lifts, squats, bench presses, lat pull downs, pull-ups, dips, lunges, front squats, hack squats, upright rows, standing dumbbell curls, hammer curls, standing calf raises, and step-ups.

By combining both types of exercises, your body will develop overall strength as well as visible results.

Body Types

For best results, tailor your training to your body type, When gauging your body type, think of your body the way it was during your adolescent years, not the way it is now.

If you are an Ectomorph:

Lean, thin, delicately build

Have trouble gaining weight

Build muscle slowly
then you should:

Increase calories, keeping in mind that you will gain body fat if you overeat

Increase, or add, weight training to your workout requiem and focus on dead lift, squats, bench presses, and pull-up to build muscle.

Minimize cardiovascular training
If you are a Mesomorph:

Muscular and athletically built

Gain and lose weight easily

Build muscle quickly
then you should:

Limit fat intake and eat four to six small meals a day about three hours apart. Keep your carbohydrate consumption at 45 percent of daily calories.

Train with weights three times a week, performing cardio each day or alternate cardio on non weight training days. Train at a moderate pace to heavy pace, with little rest between sets.
If you are an Endomorph:

Soft, round body and large none structure

Have trouble losing weight but can gain weight easily

Tend to have a high percentage of body fat and muscle
then your should:

Use regular cardio exercise or at least 30 minutes a day, five to seven day a week.

Use weight training that hits all muscle groups at least three times a week.

Eat four to six small-portion meals every three hours to increase metabolism. Eat most carbohydrate calories early, consuming more protein toward the afternoon and evening. By keep your carbohydrate intake near 35 percent of daily calories, blood glucose levels may be controlled while providing the body with enough fuel.

Select foods high in fiber (fruits, vegetables, whole grains) and lean protein (chicken breast, turkey breast, round steak, and flank steak)

Limit dairy and sugar.
Strength Training

One of the most devastating sports injuries is the tearing of the anterior cruciate ligament or ACL. One of the four major ligament complexes providing stability to the knee joint, the anterior cruciate ligament is frequently injured during twisting motions of the knee. Once it is torn, it does not heal itself. It usually requires surgery and months of rehabilitation.

Women seem to be prone to this injury more than men. The reason for this is not known. However, theories have focused on differences between men and women in the strength of the hamstrings muscles, variations in muscle function due to the menstrual cycle, and a smaller notch size in the female femur. While women cannot do anything about things like femur size, they can strengthen their hamstrings. Hamstrings are the three muscles in the back of the thigh: the biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus. The hamstrings play a vital role in walking, running, and jumping.

To help decrease ACL injuries among men and women:

Use weight training to improve hamstring strength.

Use stretching to improve hamstring flexibility.

Use plyometric jumping exercises to improve hamstrings firing time (the speed that a muscle contracts).
Add Pep to Workout

In a study at Wheeling Jesuit University in West Virginia, 40 athletes ran faster and did more pushups when exposed to the scent of peppermint than with other, or no, scents. So dabbing some peppermint oil on your collar may boost your mood and help you perform better.

One-Step Sparring

When practicing one-step sparring, ensure you are doing all techniques correctly. According to primacy of learning theory, the first way you learn to do something is the way you will do it when under stress. So, do not practice the wrong way at home and hope to perform one-steps correctly during class or at a test. Vary your practice order: perform the one-steps in order, reverse order, and randomly. While performing one-steps, concentrate on the purpose of each technique, visualize your attacker, and perform the technique with power and focus against the imaginary opponent. Always chamber a technique before execution. This makes the one-step easier to remember, gives the technique more power, and make the technique more artistically pleasing. When first learning one-steps, keep a positive attitude, everyone makes mistakes while learning.

Target Training

To perfect your target training, remember to:

Concentrate and focus on the center of the target.

When spinning, acquire the target with your eyes (get your head around first) and then complete your technique.

Follow through with your technique, continuing the hand or foot past the target.

Practice with a partner on your own time, not just in class.

Interval Training

This is a high intensity workout consisting of 10 rounds of 2-3 minutes with 1-minute rest between each round using basic to intermediate sparring techniques. For example, in round 1, perform front-leg and rear-leg front kicks. In round 2, perform front-leg and rear-leg roundhouse kicks. In round 3, perform inside and outside crescent kicks. At some round, switch to hand techniques, such as, jabs, punches, back fists, etc. Continue the workout for the remaining rounds choosing any techniques you like, such jump kicks, spin kicks, combinations, etc.. Be creative, have fun, and do not forget to warm-up before and cool-down after the workout.
Heath is offline   Reply With Quote
Unread 11-30-2005, 11:00 AM   #24
Heath
Banned
 
Join Date: May 2005
Posts: 8,088
Likes: 0
Liked 0 Times in 0 Posts
Workout Plan

A properly designed workout plan has four phases, general warm-up, specific warm-up, main workout, and cool-down. General warm-up should include basic warm-up exercises, such as running in place or rope jumping. In the specific warm-up phase, lightly perform techniques that you will be doing in main workout. Start doing these techniques slowly and get faster and higher until your body is warmed up. Then you are ready for the main workout where you will be full power and speed techniques. After you are finished with the main workout you are ready for the final phase, the cool-down. Cooling down consisting of walking around (if you are winded) and then performing some relaxed stretching and joint rotations.

Partner Stretch

Partner stretching is another way to perform you stretching warm-ups. For a front rising kick stretch, have your partner stand with his or her back to the wall. Pick up one of his or her legs (knee kept straight) and slowly raise it to a point where it feels uncomfortable. You partner will let you know when to stop lifting. Hold this stretch for ten seconds and repeat with the other leg. For a side rising kick stretch, have the partner stand side ways to the wall. Raise his or her leg, hold for ten seconds, and repeat with the other leg.

Mirror Practice

Mirror, mirror on the wall, how are my techniques compared to all?

Mirrors do not lie and they point out your faults in a non-critical way, so they are a great practice tool. Mirrors can show the areas in which you need more work. Mirrors may help you improve your:

Forms. Watch yourself as you slowly do your forms. Notice the position of your stances. Are they sharp and correct, or relaxed and sloppy? is your body erect? Do your kicks look sharp? Learn to watch the technical aspects of your form.

Kicking Techniques. Accuracy in your kicks can be improved by selecting targets on your mirror image at which to focus your kicks. Accuracy of spinning kicks can also be improved by making sure you acquire the target in the mirror before executing the kick.

Meditation

Meditation can lead to a more positive mental outlook. For best results, meditated at least 5-10 minutes daily to clear the mind and relax. Find a quiet place where you can comfortably sit cross-legged on the floor. Practice proper posture and focus on clearing your mind. Breath deeply and try to relax every inch of your body.

Breathing

Breathing is the greatest nourishment available to you. Breath is a powerful interface between the physical and spiritual worlds. The pattern of your breath reflects your emotional and physiological states. Conscious breathing may change the entire physiological rhythm of your body, restoring tired muscles, feeding the cells, and even gently massaging your vital organs. The three lobes of the lungs are fed by different breathing patterns or levels. Many people only breathe from the top lobe, which feeds the bronchi by a rapid, shallow breath, rather that the middle and lower lobes that brings the breath down to the abdomen. A very powerful breathing technique is an exercise called the fire breath, a form of Pranayama. Prana is the term for the life force energy attached to the oxygen in the air we breathe. Do this exercise every morning to push out the old breath so that you can breathe fresh energy into your body. This is perfect way to begin a meditation because it helps the mind let go of the body and allows the spiritual energy to flow.

Method. Sit with your spine straight so that the energies in your body can move up and down without hindrance. Close your fists and place your thumb and forefinger together - this creates an energetic arc so that your energy is circled throughout your body. Begin to "snort" or exhale forcibly and slowly out of your nose, pulling the diaphragm upward with each snort.. Imagine you are pretending to be a toy train and increase the snorts to make the train sounds. Continue with very fast snorts for a few successions and then slowly back down to a stop.

When you finish the fire breath, breathe in deeply, and as you exhale, squeeze your anus up tightly. This tightens up the pubiococcxygeous muscle that runs through the perineum area, which closes an important acupuncture point so that energy does not drain out from below. Take several normal breaths and begin again. Begin to breathe deep breaths all the way down to your belly. Focus on drawing the life force of prana into your body and concentrating on this act of nourishing yourself.
Heath is offline   Reply With Quote
Unread 11-30-2005, 11:03 AM   #25
Heath
Banned
 
Join Date: May 2005
Posts: 8,088
Likes: 0
Liked 0 Times in 0 Posts
Home Gym

If you go to Taekwondo class to learn Taekwondo etc. A side effect of the training is that during class you increase your strength, flexibility, endurance, etc. However, these things are best increased by training outside of class.

You could spend a lot of money to attend a fitness gym, or you could set up your own home gym in which to train. You could spend a lot of money on overpriced machines for your gym, or you could buy or make a few simple tools that will work just as well, if not better, as the expensive machines.

Space
The first thing you need a space to put the gym. It is best to have a dedicated space. When the space is only used for working out, you will not have distractions, and, anytime you walk into the space, you will feel the need to workout. The area you need for the gym depends on how much total area you have available. A separate room is best, but a corner of a room may work just as well if you use some ingenuity.

Equipment
To practice patterns, perform kicks and punches, shadowbox, and do calisthenics, you do not need any special equipment—just desire. However, to build strength, flexibility, and endurance more quickly, you may want to purchase or build some exercise equipment. You may get by with just a few inexpensive minor pieces of equipment or you may purchase some expensive specialized equipment.

While stationed on ships while I was in the Navy, I had my gym in a bag that I carried to any available space. I used a sea bag that contained: strap-on hand and leg weights, hand grip exercisers, a jump rope, a rope and pulley with a special clamp that I could clamp onto any overhead beam so I could use it for leg stretches, some cable-pulls to use for chest and arm exercises, a small mat for floor stretches and sit-ups, a Bull Worker for chest and arm exercises, and an expandable pole to place across my shoulders for waist twists.

Many times, basic equipment may be homemade. The equipment may work just as well as purchased equipment but it will probably not be as durable. It is good to start with homemade equipment so you may evaluate whether it serves your purpose or whether you will actually use the equipment. If you find yourself using the equipment regularly, then it may be good to purchase a quality replacement.

If you want to have specialized equipment, buy it used. Rooms across the country are full of unused exercise equipment purchased with the intention of working out. Check yard sales, Goodwill stores, newspaper ads, http://www.freecycle.org, and consignment stores.

The following are some key equipment you should have in your gym:

Heavy Training Bag
A heavy bag is the first piece of equipment you need and it is the best training tool you could ever have. It helps develop technique, power, and speed of both kicks and punches.

Traditionally, bags are a large cylinder shape but sometimes they were man-shaped with stuffed arms and legs. Sometimes a stuffed leather self-righting bag was used that was similar to a self-righting inflatable punching toy used by children.

Purchased

You may find heavy bags at sporting good stores or online. Some bags are designed for boxing while others are designed specifically for martial arts training. Since boxers wear boxing gloves when punching the bag, boxing style bags tend to be hard, while martial arts bags are softer so as not to damage the hands and wrists.

Bags may be made from heavy vinyl (cheaper), rip-stop vinyl that resists rips (more expensive), or leather (most expensive). The more expensive bags come in more shapes and sizes. Some bags have a water-filled core that adds more weight. Some bags have an inflatable core to make them more resilient.
Heath is offline   Reply With Quote
Unread 11-30-2005, 11:04 AM   #26
Heath
Banned
 
Join Date: May 2005
Posts: 8,088
Likes: 0
Liked 0 Times in 0 Posts
Shadow Boxing

Shadow boxing has been used as a training method by boxers for over a hundred years. The reason why it has lasted so long is because it works. It provides fighters with many benefits with virtually no bad side effects.

Martial artists may also benefit from using shadow boxing since shadow boxing drills help improve sparring techniques. The following drills were developed to teach shadow boxing skills to inexperienced students as well as to improve the skills of more advanced students.

Footwork is a common weakness in many students. Students should be comfortable moving in all directions: forward, backward, side to side, circular, and angular, and these movements must be accomplished while maintaining proper balance and form. The following are some drills used to better the footwork of students.

In the first drill the instructor calls out the direction of movement while the class responds by moving in unison, always staying relaxed and aware. The commands must be given with only short pauses between them so continuous movement is maintained.

The next drill combines footwork with well executed strikes. While moving around, a good fighter must always be prepared to take advantage of openings by being able to fire the appropriate hand or leg technique. This may be drilled by calling out techniques while students are moving at random.

The next drill adds combinations. Students should be drilled until they become accustom to throwing various hand and foot combinations while moving. The drill may be performed using either pre-arranged combinations or with random combinations put together by the students. The combinations are executed while continually moving, using random footwork.

The next drills add a visual stimulus. Up to this point the various movements were being called out. Learning to respond quickly to visual, rather than audio stimulus, is a more useful skill in sparring. In these drills, the first three drills may be repeated working with a partner.

To work on footwork, one partner is deemed the leader, the other the follower. The footwork of the follower is dependent on the movements of the leader. In other words, the follower attempts to maintain a constant distance between him or herself and the partner. If the leader moves forward, the follower must move back. If the leader moves back, the follower must move forward. Side to side and angular movements should also be used.

To add strikes, the leader simply opens a target area for his partner to strike. This works best if the targets are made obvious by exaggerated movements of the leader. The strikes may be prearranged or mixed up at random.

Students should continually strive to increase the speed and accuracy of their techniques while performing these drills. An improvement in coordination will be felt by the students after just a few rounds of these shadow boxing drills. Another benefit is the cardio vascular workout provided by extended rounds of shadow boxing. The greatest advantage that shadow boxing has over other types of sparring drills is that it may be performed solo. This permits students to improve their sparring skills at home without having to find training partners.

At home, students may stand in front of a mirror and shadow box themselves.
Heath is offline   Reply With Quote
Unread 11-30-2005, 11:14 AM   #27
Heath
Banned
 
Join Date: May 2005
Posts: 8,088
Likes: 0
Liked 0 Times in 0 Posts
Hi AD readers, I do not encourage you to try and break your hands like what you see with wood, bricks etc. We all need and value our hands for ASL chatting. Here is the article on the science behind this....If you really want to find out how powerful your punch is. I am sure your martial arts instructor, if he is certified and knowledgeable can take you somewhere to get your punching power measured.

Punching Physics

Taekwondo punches are "focused" to terminate several centimeters within the body being struck, as opposed to the follow-through punches used by the untrained. There are scientific reasons why focused punches are better than wide swinging, follow-through punches.

If contact is made a some point during a wide swing, significant torque will be produced that may throw the puncher off balance. Also, if contact is made during the follow-through, then energy will be transferred to the target via pushing rather than by deformation. Pushing generally does less damage than does deformation.

In a standard Taekwondo punch, the fist begins at the hip and terminates with the arm fully extended and the fist at shoulder height. A graph of the velocity of the fist as a function of its position (measured as a percentage of the total arm length). Notice that the maximum velocity is attained at about 75% of the distance to the stopping point. This corresponds to roughly 10-14 cm. Thus, by focusing the punch several centimeters inside the target, the Taekwondo punchers ensure that they make contact closer to the point where the fist has its maximum velocity. This maximizes the potential for damage.

Energy in a Karate Punch

To quantify the potential of a Taekwondo strike to do damage, we need to evaluate how much deformation energy is delivered by the blow. The amount of energy that a leg bone may absorb before breaking is represented by:

Emax = 1/(2Y) Alsb2
which worked out to about 350 joules. This result is proportional to the cross-sectional area of the bone. If we consider a smaller bone, like an arm bone or a rib, then a proportionately smaller amount of energy will be required to break the bone. An arm bone has a diameter of about half that of a leg bone, so the energy it may absorb will be a quarter as much as that of a leg bone, or about 88 joules. Keep this in mind as we calculate the amount of energy delivered in a Taekwondo punch.

Lets consider two people: the puncher and the opponent. Assuming that the collision between the puncher's fist and the opponent's internal organs is completely inelastic, conservation of momentum tells us that:

M1V1 = (M1 + M2)V'
Where M1 is the mass of the puncher's arm and V1 is the speed of the fist at the instant of contact; M2 is the mass of the opponent, and V' is the speed of the puncher's fist and the opponent's internal organs just after the collision. This implies that:

V' = M1V1/(M1 + M2)
The total energy available to transfer to the opponent will be the difference in the total kinetic energy before and after the collision. This difference is:

DE = 1/2 M1V12 - 1/2 (M1 + M2)V'2
Plugging in the above expression for V' yields:

DE = 1/2 M1V12 - 1/2 M12V12/(M1 + M2)

DE = 1/2 M1V12(1 - M1/(M1 + M2))

DE = 1/2 M1V12(M2/(M1 + M2)

DE = 1/2 M1M2V12/(M1 + M2)
In general, the mass of a person's arm is about 10% of the total mass of his or her body. So if we assume that the puncher and the opponent have about the same mass we have M1 ~ 0.1M2, and the above expression reduces to:

DE = 1/22 M2V12
If we assume a standard 70-kilogram person, and that the punch makes contact at its maximum velocity (~7 meters per second for a black belt) then we have:

DE = 156 J
At first, this looks more than sufficient to break an arm bone. But the real-life situation is more complicated; in most cases an arm is more likely to just move aside when hit, rather than deform and break. Ribs, however, may move very little. It is advantageous to break the bones of your opponent, but you would prefer to avoid breaking the bones in your own hand—these bones are even smaller (and thus more vulnerable) than arm or rib bones. So how do Taekwondo punchers break bones, or boards, without damaging their hands?

Impulse of a Karate Punch
For example, consider the amount of force needed to break a board supported at both ends struck in the center by a force F, as shown in Figure 2. The downward force will be shared by the two supports, so each will supply an upward force of F/2. Imagine that the board is deflected downwards by the force, as shown in green. In this case the top surface of the board will be in compression, and the bottom surface will be in tension.

This force will produce a torque about an axis through the middle of the board. To understand this, consider the forces on the left half of the board that are due to the right half. The top of the board is in compression, so the right half is pushing to the left. The bottom of the board is in tension, so here the right half is pulling to the right. These forces are indicated by the red horizontal arrows. This means the forces will produce a counter-clockwise torque about the center. The board will break if this torque is greater than:

tmax = 1/6 Wh2sb
where W is the width of the board, h is the thickness, and sb is the modulus of rupture of wood.

Notice that the upward force from the left support will tend to produce a torque in the opposite direction from the torque due to the stresses. The magnitude of this torque is simply r*F (since r and F are perpendicular in this case), or F/2 * L/2. If this torque is less than tmax given above, then the board will not break. Thus, the minimum force needed to break the board can be calculated by setting these two torques equal to each other:

FL/4 = 1/6 Wh2sb

F = 2/3 sb Wh2/L
Notice that the force is proportional to h2; boards get much harder to break as they get thicker. This is why breakers will break stacks of several thin boards rather than a single large piece of wood with the same total thickness. If we put in some typical dimensions for a board, such as L x W x h = 30 x 20 x 2 cm, and look up the rupture modulus, we get a force of around 711 N, or 160 lbs. This force sounds feasible for a punch to generate, but let us check to be sure.

If we assume, as above, that we have a 7-kg arm traveling at 7 m/s then we have a total momentum of P ~ 49 kg m/s. We assume that the fist and arm come to rest during the blow, so this is the total DP in the collision. Since the force is DP/Dt, we need to know how quickly the fist stops.

Graphing the position, velocity, and acceleration of a downward hammer fist strike. Notice that the velocity starts out fairly constant (and negative) and then quickly changes. The maximum acceleration upon contact with the target is upwards of 350 g! By looking at the width of the peak in the acceleration curve, we may get an idea of the interaction time. It looks to be a little over 5 ms. Since this situation is a bit different from ours, we will be conservative and assume an interaction time of 10 ms. A change in momentum of 49 kg m/s in a time of 10 ms would require a force of 4900 N, which is more than sufficient to break the board described above.

However, what about the breaking the cones in the hand? There is a bit of a safety margin sense bone is inherently stronger than wood (or even concrete). A torque analysis similar to the one above for a small, short cylinder of bone (similar to the bones in the hand) indicates that it should take a force of about 1500 N to break a hand bone.

But the bones in the hand are protected because they are not rigidly supported like the board discussed above. The soft connective tissue (muscles, tendons, etc.) in the hand may absorb much of the energy of the strike, if the hand is held in the proper position. Also, recall that bone is much stronger in compression than in tension or torsion, so, if the hand is held in a position such that the bones are exposed to compression rather than tension, the bones will be further protected.

So the board should break before the hand does. Still, the ~4900 N available in the punch is much greater than the 1500 N required to break a hand bone. So, even with the safety margins, there is still a risk. Most of the safety margin depends on technique; holding the fist properly, snapping it out with great speed, etc. If the punch is executed properly, the board will break; otherwise, the hand will break.
Heath is offline   Reply With Quote
Unread 11-30-2005, 11:17 AM   #28
Heath
Banned
 
Join Date: May 2005
Posts: 8,088
Likes: 0
Liked 0 Times in 0 Posts
Better Vision

Better Vision = Better Sparring

The control system of your body runs through your visual system. Your visual system represents 80 percent of your sensory perception. Good vision represents more than just having 20/20 sight. Vision involves other things, such as the ability to track and focus at the same time. You need to see and track fast-moving objects, to see things and people in the corner of the eye (peripheral vision), and to filter out visual distractions. You also need depth perception and eye-hand coordination.

To improve sparring skills, most students train to improve techniques and increase physical fitness. Just as important is to train your vision so you may detect movement quicker, see movement from your sides, track movement trajectory and speed more accurately, see other movements around you and determine if they are a threat, and coordinate your movements to counter any attack.

There are visual therapy programs to improve vision that cost hundreds of dollars, but there are some exercises you can do yourself that may improve your vision, and your sparring. The following exercises are recommended by the American Optometric Association to improve vision.

Visual Concentration

Visual concentration is the ability to screen out distractions and stay focused on an opponent. To improve visual concentration, have other students stand around the sparring area while you are sparring waving their arms and moving in and out of your field of vision. You also can spar in a darkened room with a slowly pulsating strobe light (be very careful).

Eye Tracking

Eye tracking helps you keep your balance and react quickly. You must be able to follow movement without much head movement. To improve eye tracking, have two people stand about ten feet apart and toss a ball back and forth. Stand between them, centered and to the side, with a book balanced on your head and follow the ball movement without the book falling. You can also train by keeping track of a small ball rolling inside a Frisbee. Change the ball size and rolling speed as you improve.

Visualization

Visualization is seeing yourself do one thing well in your mind's "eye" while your eyes are seeing and concentrating on something else, such as a a moving ball. Research as shown that picturing yourself perform well at something, such as sparring or performing a hyung, can actually improve your ability.

Where to Look

When dealing with people on a day-to-day basis, we learn to look them in the eyes when talking with them. This shows we are paying attention and that we care. However, a hostile person, may take eye contact as a challenge. Also, looking an opponent in the eyes keeps you from noticing any signals that he or she is about to attack.

A better place to look is at the "triangle;" the area enclosed an imaginary line that runs from shoulder to shoulder and two line that run from each shoulder to the point of the chin. However, you do not want to stare at the triangle. Move your eyes periodically between your opponent's eyes to the triangle. Now you are not focused on one point. A good street fighter knows how to use his or her eyes to deceive. He or she will look one direction and attack in another. To avoid becoming a victim of this tactic, keep your eyes moving back and forth from the eyes to the triangle. You do not want to completely avoid the eyes since you may miss a change in attitude.

Any movement of the body is echoed by a movement of the shoulders or head. These movements may telegraph an attack:

When the shoulders and chest rotate a bit counterclockwise, it indicates a possible right punch to your upper body or head.

When the chest rotates counterclockwise and shoulders dip forward, it indicates a possible a right-hand technique to your midsection.

When the chest rotates either way with very little shoulder movement, a punch may follow with either hand.

When the shoulder angles backward and chest rotates counterclockwise, it indicates a possible right kick.

When the chest rotates clockwise and shoulders angle back, it indicates a possible left kick.

If the upper body suddenly lifts, it indicates a possible push or tackle.

Watch the triangle to time the rhythm of inhalation and exhalation. An attack will most often occur as the subject inhales, the moment when he or she is strongest. Conversely, the opponent is weakest during an exhalation, so time your attack to coincide with the exhalation.

Cold Stare

The eyes are "windows to the heart." In most people, they reveal a person's intentions. A sharp inhalation, deep squint, hardening of the face, or barring of the his teeth indicate a immanent attack. Darting eyes indicate fear, looking for an escape, or looking for help or a weapon. Upon observing any of these indicators, do freeze your gaze on his or her eyes. While the eyes may communicate intended actions, keep watching the triangle for indications of any action.

Be leery of the "cold stare." The cold stare is one that shows no emotion and thus hides intentions. Be especially leery when the cold stare begins to look through you or to your side. If you are familiar with dogs, you know that this look means an attack is imminent.

Blank Stare

When a person's face goes blank (eyes flatten similar to those of a fish, face goes pale and slack, body slumps), it indicates a person who is ready to explode. If the person is is standing, the shoulders will relax, chin may drop, and his arms will go limp at the sides. If person is sitting, he or she will move to the edge of the chair in your direction and will place his or her hands so he or she can push off toward you. A slight twitch of the body is another indicator of an intention to move. Be very cautious of the person who ignores you and acts as if he or she does not hear you, such as continuing to commit a crime even after seeing you.

Use Your Eyes Effectively

Sometimes your opponent has an intense, hypnotic gaze that seems to bore into the soul. This can be disconcerting or at least distracting. You may look away to break the intensity of the moment, but when you look back, the stare is more intense than before. Looking away may indicate your weakness and encourage the stare, so instead of looking away, look between the eyes, at the nose, at the eyebrows, or even at the cheekbone. Try looking through the eyes, as if looking at a spot beyond the person. This will keep you emotionless and unaffected by the hard eyes. It also keeps your face blank, giving the opponent nothing to feed upon.

Use the Sudden Look

When a person is becoming hostile with you, as you talk, look off to the side (while still monitoring the person with your peripheral vision), and then, abruptly turn your head back and look hard into the person's eyes. Some people, though not all, are momentarily frozen by this technique, a moment which provides an opportunity to move in and take control of the person.

Do Not Look Where You Intend to Attack

When you move toward an attacker, avoid looking where you are attacking.You may keep watching the triangle. You might even look off to the side first, always keeping person in your peripheral vision. Another way is to use the fingers of one hand to give a “come here” gesture. When the person's eyes look toward the motion of your fingers, grasp person with your other hand. By watching the triangle, if you initial move is countered, you will be ready for it
Heath is offline   Reply With Quote
Unread 11-30-2005, 11:28 AM   #29
Heath
Banned
 
Join Date: May 2005
Posts: 8,088
Likes: 0
Liked 0 Times in 0 Posts
Weapon Defense

The basic rules for self-defense against any weapon attack (firearms included) must be executed in the order listed:

Clear your body from the the weapon's line of fire or angle of attack

Stabilize and control the weapon

Disarm the weapon

Neutralize the attacker
Heath is offline   Reply With Quote
Unread 11-30-2005, 11:31 AM   #30
Heath
Banned
 
Join Date: May 2005
Posts: 8,088
Likes: 0
Liked 0 Times in 0 Posts
If you are a law abiding gun owner. You need to know this.

Rules for Weapons

Be proficient with the weapon. Whichever weapon you carry, use must be proficient with it. It you are not proficient with a weapon, leave it at home. Some weapons are as dangerous to the user in the hands of the un-trained gun owner as they are to the target of the weapon. In the case of firearms, many people are shot each year from accidental discharges and "unloaded" weapons.

Carry the weapon. A weapon is of no use to you unless it are readily available, and even then, it must be in your hand for you to use it.

Weapons laws. There are special state and federal laws pertaining to weapons, carrying weapons, and using weapons. If you carry a weapon, you must be know about these laws, especially those in your city, town, county, and state.

A weapon is a merely a tool. In itself, a weapon is merely an inanimate object, incapable of taking action by itself. What the weapon is used for and how it used are the responsibility of the person using the weapon.
Heath is offline   Reply With Quote
Reply

Thread Tools
Display Modes

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off

Forum Jump


All times are GMT -5. The time now is 06:40 PM.


Join AllDeaf on Facebook!    Follow us on Twitter!

AllDeaf proudly supports St. Jude Children's Research Hospital

Copyright © 2002-2014, AllDeaf.com. All Rights Reserved.